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Written by Bunga

Nismo 400R
games car
Image by Bryce Womeldurf
These color variations of the Nismo 400R Skyline GT-R were originally set up for Forza 3 as limited editions of 10 of each color for 10,000 credits each. Now, I’ve imported them into Forza 4 and they are available on my in-game storefront (search Gamertag: TrampaOnline) in unlimited quantities and at half of the original price. The body pieces used to resemble the appearance of the real 400R are a Top Secret front bumper, and side skirts and rear bumper by JUN. From the wheels available in the game, the ones that most closely resemble the old Rays LMGT4 wheels that came on the 400R are the Rota P45r.

From Wikipedia:
A special edition R33 was released on November 3, 1997 called the 400R, with R standing for Racing. Overall development and planning was by NISMO (Nissan Motorsports International). But, its bored and stroked RB26DETT engine, the RBX-GT2, was engineered and produced by REINIK (later renamed REIMAX – "REINIK to the MAX"). The engine featured 77.7 mm stroke crankshaft (73.7 mm stock), forged 87 mm pistons (86 mm cast stock), upgraded rods, polished ports, high lift camshafts, upgraded oil system, larger exhaust manifolds and higher output turbochargers. NISMO produced an upgraded exhaust, a twin-plate clutch, and intercooler system. Nismo brake pads were fitted to the car. 400R exclusive aerodynamic updates were also added, such as wider fenders, side skirts, a new rear bumper, a new front bumper with bigger air scoops, and a redesigned bonnet and rear spoiler made of carbon fiber. The 400R was also fitted with 18×10 Nismo LM-GT1s. The car developed 300 kW (400 hp) and 347 lb·ft (470 N·m), which allowed a top speed of over 186 mph (300 km/h), and enabled it to reach 0–97 km/h in 4.0 seconds. 370 kW (500 hp) is easily achieved with a higher boost setting. NISMO had originally planned to produce 100 units of the 400R, however only 44 units were made before production of the R33 ended in 1998.

The word automobile comes, via the French automobile, from the Ancient Greek word ????? (autós, “self”) and the Latin mobilis (“movable”); meaning a vehicle that moves itself, rather than being pulled or pushed by a separate animal or another vehicle. The alternative name car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum (“wheeled vehicle”), or the Middle English word carre (“cart”) (from Old North French), or karros (a Gallic wagon).[4][5]


History

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Main article: History of the automobile

Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built the first steam-powered vehicle around 1672 which was of small scale and designed as a toy for the Chinese Emperor, that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger, but quite possibly, was the first working steam-powered vehicle (‘auto-mobile’).[6][7]

Although Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is often credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769, by adapting an existing horse-drawn vehicle, this claim is disputed by some[citation needed], who doubt Cugnot’s three-wheeler ever ran or was stable. What is not in doubt is that Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive in 1801, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, although it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods, and would have been of little practical use.

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In Russia, in the 1780s, Ivan Kulibin developed a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern features such as a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearings; however, it was not developed further.[8]

François Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss inventor, designed the first internal combustion engine, in 1806, which was fueled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and used it to develop the world’s first vehicle, albeit rudimentary, to be powered by such an engine. The design was not very successful, as was the case with others, such as Samuel Brown, Samuel Morey, and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile, who each produced vehicles (usually adapted carriages or carts) powered by clumsy internal combustion engines.[9]

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In November 1881, French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile that was powered by electricity. This was at the International Exhibition of Electricity in Paris.[10]

Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile.[9]

An automobile powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine was built in Mannheim, Germany by Karl Benz in 1885, and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company, Benz & Cie., which was founded in 1883. It was an integral design, without the adaptation of other existing components, and included several new technological elements to create a new concept. This is what made it worthy of a patent. He began to sell his production vehicles in 1888.



Karl Benz
A photograph of the original Benz Patent Motorwagen, first built in 1885 and awarded the patent for the concept

In 1879, Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which had been designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle.

His first Motorwagen was built in 1885, and he was awarded the patent for its invention as of his application on January 29, 1886. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3, 1886, and about 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced along with a model intended for affordability. They also were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early automobiles, initially more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany.

In 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine, called a boxermotor in German. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and, because of its size, Benz & Cie., became a joint-stock company.

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